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NEWSLETTER Anno 5, n. 13 - 19 settembre 2007




NEWSLETTER DEL CENTRO DI DOCUMENTAZIONE E RICERCA PER LA CITTADINANZA ATTIVA

Anno 5, n. 13 -  19 settembre 2007

A cura di Gabriele Sospiro
Con la collaborazione di:
Gabriele Sospiro (GS)
Paolo Sospiro (PS)
Jiske van Loon (JvL)
Bengu Bayram (BB)
Tobias Gehring (TG)
Dora Ioannou (DI)

*************************************************************
INDICE
1.   CORSO ONLINE
2.   ATTIVITÀ DEL CENTRO
3.   PRESENTAZIONE NUOVO VOLONTARIO: TOBIAS GEHRING
4.   MIGRATION IN GERMANY
5.   MIGRATION TO TURKEY
6.   EUROPEAN CITIZENSHIP AND DEMOCRACY IN MOLDOVA
7.   SOMETHING ABOUT GREECE
8.   LOESJE: THINGS TO THINK ABOUT
9.   EXCHANGE PROGRAMME IN TURKEY

**********************
1. CORSO ONLINE
**********************
Con l'inizio dell'autunno il Circolo Africa in collaborazione con
l'Università di Macerata organizzerà due corsi online su immigrazione e
cooperazione internazionale. Struttura del corso, modalità di valutazione e
certificati post corso sono ancora in fase di organizzazione.
Per eventuali
informazione inviare una mail a
segreteria at circoloafrica.org con oggetto: CORSO ONLINE IMMIGRAZIONE oppure
COOPERAZIONE INTERNAZIONALE


************************
2. ATTIVITÀ DEL CENTRO
************************
Il Centro di Documentazione e Ricerca per la Cittadinanza Attiva è aperto
il Martedì e Giovedì dalle 10 alle 13.00 e dalle 15.00 alle 18.00. Se avete
libri da proporre così che noi possiamo acquistarli fatecelo sapere! Se
state facendo una tesi di laurea o ricerche sull'immigrazione,
sull'economia politica, o su temi riguardanti il terzo settore, etc. presso
il nostro Centro potete ottenere informazioni ad hoc previa prenotazione
telefonica.
Per contatti ed eventuali prenotazioni 071/2072585

**************************************************
3. PRESENTAZIONE NUOVO VOLONTARI0: TOBIAS GEHRING
**************************************************
Ciao,

I am Tobias, and I will serve the Circolo Culturale Africa as volunteer for
one year, from September 10, 2007, to September 9, 2008. I am 20 years old
and I come from a small town in Germany close to Mainz (Magonza) and
Frankfurt (Francoforto), where I lived with my parents and my brother.
Before I finished school in this year's March, I decided that before
studying at a university, I wanted to spend a longer period of time abroad,
both to engage socially and to discover a foreign country, its culture and
language, many new people and also new parts of myself.
The European Voluntary Service means both a chance and a challenge to me; a
chance, because it offers various new opportunities and enables me to make
many experiences which will surely proof being of worth not only for the
time of the EVS itself, but for my entire future life; a challenge, because
for the first time, I am away for such a long time from both my home and my
home country and will have to find ways of integrating myself into the
project aswell as into the country, of organizing my everyday's life and
dealing with problems resulting hence more autonomously than ever before.
Yet, when I think of the days, weeks and months to come, it is a clearly
positive and optimistic attitude towards them that arouses. A mere reason
for this is that I know that I will spend my time doing something which I
consider to make sense and to be helpful to the Circolo and its aims and
which to do I am thus motivated.
The main reason why I decided to apply here at the Circolo is that I
support its anti-racist attitudes and its aims towards mutual understanding
between people from different cultural backgrounds. From daily news and
from working for amnesty international, I know that all over the world, in
history as in present times, many conflicts, a lot of violence and hate
come from a lack of knowledge about other cultures going hand in hand with
- mostly negative - prejudices and antipathies. Enabling cultural exchange,
exchange of ideas, beliefs and attitudes to happen, enabling people to get
to know another one's background is a way of preventing unnecessary and yet
respectively thus very cruel violence to take place before it begins and is
a way to establish mutual respect and peace.
I am thus looking forward to working for Circolo Africa, as I do to
discovering Ancona, of which I haven't seen so far since when I write this
article I have only been here for 24 hours. Yet, the first impressions I
had of the city were rather positive, especially, I like the small, calm
piazze which hardly exist in German cities. All in all, I feel that an
interesting, new and important part of my life is just beginning, and I am
glad about this.

(TG)
------------------------------------------------------------

Ciao,

ich bin Tobias und werde dem Circolo Culturale Africa ein Jahr lang, vom
10. September 2007 bis zum 9. September 2008, als Freiwilliger dienen. Ich
bin 20 Jahre alt und komme aus einer kleinen Stadt in Deutschland nahe
Mainz und Frankfurt, wo ich bisher mit meinen Eltern und meinem Bruder
gelebt habe.
Bevor ich im Maerz diesen Jahres die Schule verliess, entschied ich mich,
vor dem Studium einige Zeit im Ausland zu verbringen, sowohl um mich sozial
zu engagieren als auch, um ein fremdes Land mit seiner Kultur und seiner
Sprache, viele neue Menschen und auch neue Teile meiner selbst zu entdecken.
Der Europaeische Freiwilligendienst bedeutet fuer mich sowohl eine
Gelegenheit als auch eine Herausforderung; eine Gelegenheit, weil er eine
Vielzahl neuer Moeglichkeiten eroeffnet und mich befaehigt, viele neue
Erfahrungen zu machen, die sich sicherlich nicht nur fuer die Dauer des
Freiwilligendienstes, sondern fuer mein gesamtes zukuenftiges Leben als
wertvoll erweisen werden; eine Herausforderung, weil ich zum ersten mal
fuer solch eine lange Zeit von daheim und meinem Heimatland fort bin und
Wege finden muss, mich ins Projekt wie auch ins Land zu integrieren, und
selbststaendiger denn je meinen Alltag organisieren und mit daraus
entspringenden Schwierigkeiten umgehen muss.
Wenn ich an die kommenden Tage, Wochen und Monate denke, spuere ich
deutlich eine positive, optimistische Einstellung zu ihnen. Ein wichtiger
Grund dafuer ist, dass ich weiss, dass ich meine Zeit mit etwas verbringen
werde, dass ich sowohl fuer sinnvoll als auch fuer dem Circolo und seinen
Zielen zutraeglich halte und wozu ich daher motiviert bin.
Der Hauptgrund, weshalb ich mich beim Circolo bewarb, ist, dass ich seine
anti-rassistische Grundeinstellung und seine Ziele hinsichtlich
gegenseitigen Verstaendnisses zwischen Leuten mit verschiedenen kulturellen
Hintergruenden unterstuetze. Aus den taeglichen Nachrichten und von meiner
Arbeit fuer amnesty international weiss ich, dass ueberall auf der Welt, in
der Vergangenheit wie in der Gegenwart, viele Konflikte, viel Gewalt und
Hass einem Mangel an Wissen ueber Angehoerige anderer Kulturen entstammen,
welcher mit - meist negativen - Vorurteilen und mit Feindseligkeiten Hand
in Hand geht.
Kulturellen Austausch, den Austausch von Ideen, Ueberzeugungen und
Meinungen zu ermoeglichen, es zu ermoeglichen, dass Leute den Hintergrund
ihres Gegenuebers zu verstehen lernen, ist eine Moeglichkeit, unnoetige und
dennoch bzw. deshalb sehr grausame Gewalt zu verhindern, bevor sie beginnt,
und es ist ein Weg, gegenseitigen Respekt und Frieden zu errichten.
Ich freue mich daher darauf, fuer den Circolo Africa zu arbeiten, wie ich
mich auch darauf freue, Ancona kennen zu lernen, wovon ich bisher noch
nicht viel gesehen habe, denn als ich diesen Text schreibe, bin ich gerade
seit 24 Stunden hier. Die ersten Eindruecke von der Stadt sind jedoch sehr
positiv, insbesondere gefallen mir die kleinen, ruhigen piazze, die es in
deutschen Staedten kaum gibt.
Alles in allem fuehle ich, dass ein wichtiger, neuer und interessanter
Abschnitt meines Lebens gerade beginnt, und darueber bin ich froh.

(TG)

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4. MIGRATION IN GERMANY
**************************************************

Immigration to Germany - now and in history

In spring 2007, when the conservative CDU published its new manifest, a
remarkable change could be obeyed. Whereas former manifests always claimed
that Germany* was no land of immigration, it now could be read that Germany
is a "land of integration." And one year before, the conservative minister
of integration of the region Nordrhein-Westfalen even said that Germany is
a "land of immigration" - a remark for which he was strongly criticized
e.g. by the German minister of domestic affairs, Wolfgang Schaeuble, CDU.
What is the reason of this conflict between the conservatives who are just
about to abandon one of their former core positions?
The answer is clear when you have a look at the size of migration in
Germany. Of the 80 million inhabitants of the country, seven million people
don't have the German citizenship, and another seven million are so-called
"people with migration-background", which means that they are German
citizens, but that either they or their ancestors came to Germany as
immigrants. So almost one fifth of the German population are either
immigrants or have a migration-background, and as these 20% have a higher
average number of children per woman than the rest, their proportion of the
whole population is growing.
In the 1960s, the government decided to make it easier to immigrate to
Germany, since the economic rise of the post-war-decade resulted in a
situation that there was almost no unemployment, so especially for
so-called low-qualified, work-intensive jobs, there were more offers than
requests by the native German population. The idea behind this was that the
immigrants should do these jobs, earn some money, push the economy and then
go back to their native countries again. Yet the immigrants of this time,
most of them Turkish, Italians and Greek, decided to stay longer. Thus,
still today, people from these countries form - together with people from
Poland and the former Yugoslavia and USSR - the majority of the people with
migration-background. Another, yet much smaller of immigrants are refugees,
many of them again from former Yugoslavia, from where they escaped during
the war in the 1990s.

Immigrants as seen by Germans

There are plenty different opinions amongst the German on how many
immigrants should live in Germany and in how far they should assimilate to
German culture and society. The variety of opinions includes views that
everyone should be free to come to Germany and decide autonomously in how
far he /she will try to integrate, as well as the opinion that every
immigrant, also the well-integrated, should have to leave Germany.
Interestingly, the party which supports the latter point of view, the
neo-nazist NPD, is relatively strong in those areas where relatively few
immigrants live.
The clear majority however believes that immigration in itself isn't a bad
thing and welcomes immigrants**, but also asks them to make efforts to
integrate such as learning the language. Immigrants, who bring with them
their own habits and customs, can enrich the German culture and society -
for example, the Turkish doener kebap is one of the most popular fast-food
meals in Germany - but can also cause problems, when their lifestyle
collides with the lifestyle the German people are known to, when for
example Muslim parents don't allow their daughter to join the swimming
courses in school.

The social situation of immigrants

A major problem for and about immigrants is the education. The weekly
magazine FOCUS, wrote in an article about the 2nd PISA research ("Ohrfeige
fuer Deutschland", 22. 11. 04): "In no other similar country in the world,
success in school depends so much on the parents' income and education as
in Germany. Corresponding to the conclusion of the researchers, the school
system fails mainly for worker and immigrant children. Being equally
gifted, an academicians' child has a three times so big chance to get the
Abitur (certificate at the end of secondary school, allowing you to study
at a university) than a workers' child." Since most immigrant children come
from financially weak families, many immigrants don't receive a good
education, thus hardly find a job later, and so, also their children will
be disadvantaged once, so that a milieu establishes, where good education
is a rare gift, which one can hardly leave, where German is not spoken a
lot and which is only weakly connected to other parts of society, so that
it becomes a "parallel society." Already today, there are places like
Berlin-Kreuzberg, where the immigrants are mostly amongst themselves, and
it is clear that a social division in immigrants and natives isn't positive
for mutual understanding, since it makes it more difficult that immigrants
get to know Germans and vice versa. This phenomenon, however, is more or
less restricted to those immigrants of who there are enough to form a
homogeneous group of themselves (comparable to the North-African immigrant
groups in France), and it is however not impossible for immigrants to find
success and a real home within Germany and its society.

Topical immigrant policy

In the following survey on politicians' ideas about immigration, I deal
with the parties of the current parliament; the CDU/CSU (conservative), the
SPD (social-democratic), the FDP (liberal), Buendnis 90 / Die Gruenen
(environmental) and Die Linke (social-democratic, socialist). This choice,
though excluding anti-immigrant right-wing-extremist parties, seemed best
to me since the named five parties are those who have chances of entering
one of the next governments and thus actively design the immigration
policy. All further text is translated quotes from the parties' websites.
-       CDU/CSU: "Everyone, society and the state are responsible for
integration. It needs the co-operation of all, also the help of
corporations. (Š) Society has to enable immigrants to share social life. At
the same time, people who live here must want to integrate. This includes
to speak the German language and to accept the values and norms of the
Grundgesetz (the German constitution). Especially, this is valid for equal
treatment of men and women. This leading culture in Germany guarantees that
our society stands together also in future. We refuse an unconnected
next-to-each-other which only results into parallel societies."
-       SPD: "Different worlds of life, ideas of values, cultural
traditions, ways of life and mutual acceptance of these differences are a
characteristic trait of living together in a society of immigration. (Š) By
contacts of people from a different social and cultural origin, cultures
influence each other and change (Š) Without getting to know other ways of
cultural expression and respect towards other cultures, the foreign one
can't become the other one (Š) Every policy of integration has to take the
cultural aspects of immigration into a stronger account (Š The SPD is) for
a humane culture of acceptance instead of "German leading culture"."
-       FDP: "The liberals want a society which is open for immigration and
cultural influences from outside, but who autonomously decides and
regulates the strength of their openness (Š) Germany has immigration and
needs immigration (Š) The liberal citizen society (Š) demands the will to
integrate without asking for equalizing assimilation. A systematic policy
of immigration and integration needs a legal basis (Š) A successful
integration of immigration needs the will to integrate, the deconstruction
of discriminating hurdles and help-services to integrate."
-       Buendnis 90 / Die Gruenen: "The multicultural society is reality we
have to shape democratically (Š) Our country has to open interculturally -
in the towns, the social services, in associations, organization and policy
(Š) Living together in social multitude has to happen with the acceptance
of common and solid rules, measured by the basic and human rights (Š) We
invite immigrants to become citizens of this country and engage for that
the doors be opened (Š) We advertise for a social consensus to offer
(illegal immigrants) a way into legalization."
-       Die Linke: "We ask for (Š) the right to vote for all whose centre
of life is in Germany (Š) equal rights for the access to the work market
(Š) the right to German citizenship for all children born here and for all
whose centre of life is in Germany (Š) a simplification of gaining
citizenship (Š) an effective law against discrimination."

Immigrants in Hessen

With 12.2% (as to Statistisches Bundesamt, 31. 12. 1998), Hessen has a very
large proportion of immigrants, only surmounted by Hamburg (15.2%), Berlin
(12.7%) and Baden-Wuerttemberg (12.5%). The ten nations where most of the
immigrants come from are Turkey (25.4%), Italy (9.4), former Yugoslavia
(8.9), Greece (4.5), Croatia, Poland (3.4 each), Spain (3.2), Morocco
(2.9), USA (2.7) and Iran (2.2). Within Hessen, the immigrants however
concentrate on the very urbanised Rhein-Main- Gebiet (Rhine-Main Area) with
Frankfurt, which itself is inhabited by 195,400 of Hessen's 733,989 people
from foreign countries.

* If nothing different is said, the term "Germany" in this text always
refers to the Federal Republic of Germany, as do related terms like "German
politicians", "the German population" etc.
** http://www.presseportal.de/pm/32522/769270/reader_s_digest_deutschland/:
Of 7,800 asked in Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, Portugal, Netherlands,
Sweden, Spain and Switzerland, 47% agree that immigrants are a benefit to
their new home country, and 73% report about positive experiences with
immigrants in daily life

(TG)
------------------------------------------------------------

MIGRATION IN DEUTSCHLAND

Einwanderung nach Deutschland - jetzt und in der Geschichte

Als die konservative CDU im Frühjahr 2007 ihr neues Parteiprogramm
vorstellte, konnte ein bemerkenswerter Wandel festgestellt werden.
Wohingegen frühere Programme stets behaupteten, Deutschland* sei kein
Einwanderungsland, konnte man nun lesen, Deutschland sei ein
“Integrationsland." Und ein Jahr zuvor sagte der konservative
Integrationsminister Nordrhein-Westfalens sogar, Deutschland sei ein
“Einwanderungsland" - eine Aussage, für die er z. B. vom deutschen
Innenminister Wolfgang Schäuble, CDU, stark kritisiert wurde. Was ist der
Grund für diesen Konflikt zwischen den Konservativen, die gerade dabei
sind, eine ihrer früheren Grundpositionen aufzugeben?
Die Antwort ist klar, wenn man einen Blick auf das Ausmaß der Einwanderung
in Deutschland wirft. Von den 80 Millionen Einwohnern des Landes haben
sieben Millionen nicht die deutsche Staatsbürgerschaft, und weitere sieben
Millionen sind so genannte “Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund", was
bedeutet, dass sie deutsche Staatsbürger sind, aber dass entweder sie oder
ihre Vorfahren als Einwanderer nach Deutschland kamen. Also sind fast ein
Fünftel der Bevölkerung Deutschlands entweder Immigranten oder haben einen
Migrationshintergrund, und da diese 20% im Schnitt mehr Kinder pro Frau
bekommen, wächst ihr Anteil an der Bevölkerung stetig.
In den 60er Jahren entschied die Regierung, es Leuten zu  erleichtern, nach
Deutschland einzuwandern, da der Wirtschaftsaufschwung der Nachkriegsjahre
zu einer Situation führte, in der es fast keine Arbeitslosigkeit gab,
weshalb es insbesondere für so genannte gering qualifizierte Jobs das
Angebot die Nachfrage der einheimischen Bevölkerung überstieg. Die Idee
hinter dem ganzen war, dass die Immigranten diese Arbeiten erledigen, etwas
Geld verdienen, die Wirtschaft ankurbeln und dann in ihre Heimatländer
zurückkehren sollten. Die Einwanderer, die meisten von ihnen Türken,
Italiener und Griechen, entschlossen sich jedoch, länger zu bleiben. Daher
bilden noch heute Menschen aus diesen Ländern - zusammen mit solchen aus
Polen und den früheren Jugoslawien und UdSSR - die Mehrheit der Menschen
mit Migrationshintergrund. Eine weitere, aber kleinere Einwanderergruppe
besteht aus Flüchtlingen, von denen wiederum viele aus dem früheren
Jugoslawien kommen, woraus sie während dem Krieg in den 90er Jahren flohen.

Wie die Deutschen die Einwanderer sehen

Es gibt viele verschiedene Meinungen unter den Deutschen darüber, wie viele
Einwanderer in Deutschland leben sollten und wie stark sie versuchen
sollten, sich der deutschen Kultur und Gesellschaft anzupassen. Die
Vielzahl der Ansichten umfasst Sichtweisen, dass jeder nach Deutschland
einwandern können sollte und selbst darüber entscheiden sollte, inwiefern
er oder sie versucht, sich zu integrieren, ebenso wie die Meinung, dass
alle Einwanderer, auch die gut integrierten, Deutschland verlassen sollten.
Interessanterweise ist die Partei, die die letztgenannte Ansicht
unterstützt, die neonazistische NPD, dort vergleichsweise stark, wo relativ
wenige Einwanderer leben.
Die klare Mehrheit meint jedoch, dass Einwanderung an sich nicht schlecht
ist**, dass jedoch auch die Immigranten Anstrengungen unternehmen sollten,
sich zu integrieren, etwa, indem sie die Sprache lernen. Immigranten, die
mit sich ihre eigenen Lebensweisen und Sitten bringen, können die deutsche
Kultur und Gesellschaft bereichern - beispielsweise ist der türkische Döner
Kebab eines der beliebtesten Fast-Food-Gerichte - können aber auch Probleme
hervorrufen, wenn ihr Lebensstil mit dem kollidiert, den die Deutschen
gewohnt sind, wenn beispielsweise muslimische Eltern es ihren Töchtern
nicht erlauben, am schulischen Schwimmunterricht teilzunehmen.

Die gesellschaftliche Situation der Immigranten

Ein grosses Problem für und bezüglich Immigranten ist die Bildung. Das
Wochenmagazin FOCUS schrieb in einem Artikel zur zweiten PISA-Studie
(“Ohrfeige für Deutschland", 22. 11. 04):" In keinem anderen vergleichbaren
Staat der Welt hängt der Schulerfolg so stark von Einkommen und Vorbildung
der Eltern ab wie in Deutschland. Das deutsche Schulsystem versagt nach dem
Fazit der Forscher bei der Förderung von Arbeiter- und Migrantenkindern.
Bei gleicher Begabung hat ein Akademikerkind in Deutschland eine mehr als
dreimal so große Chance, das Abitur zu erlangen, als ein Facharbeiterkind."
Da die meisten Einwandererkinder aus finanzschwachen Familien stammen,
erfahren viele von ihnen keine gute Bildung, können daher später schlechter
einen Arbeitsplatz finden, und so werden auch ihre Kinder einst
benachteiligt sein; so entsteht ein Milieu, in dem eine hohe Bildung ein
rares Gut ist, welches man schlecht verlassen kann, wo wenig Deutsch
gesprochen wird und welches nur schwach mit den anderen Teilen der
Gesellschaft verbunden ist, sodass es eine Parallelgesellschaft wird.
Bereits heute gibt es Orte wie Berlin-Kreuzberg, wo die Einwanderer
weitgehend unter sich sind, und es ist offensichtlich, dass eine
Gesellschaftsteilung in Einwanderer und Einheimische nicht gut für
gegenseitiges Verständnis ist, da sie es erschwert, dass Einwanderer
Deutsche kennen lernen und umgekehrt. Dieses Phänomen ist jedoch mehr oder
weniger auf diejenigen Einwanderergruppen beschränkt, von denen es genug
gibt, als dass sie eine einheitliche Gruppe bilden können (etwa
vergleichbar den nordafrikanischen Einwanderern in Frankreich), und es ist
trotz allem nicht unmöglich für Einwanderer, in Deutschland und seiner
Gesellschaft Erfolg und eine echte Heimat zu finden.

Gegenwaertige Einwanderungspolitik

In der folgenden Uebersicht über Ideen der Politiker zur Einwanderung
beschäftige ich mich mit den Parteien, die im aktuellen Parlament vertreten
sind; der CDU/CSU (konservativ), der SPD (sozialdemokratisch), der FDP
(liberal), Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen (umweltorientiert) und Die Linke
(sozialdemokratisch, sozialistisch). Diese Auswahl, wenngleich sie
einwandererfeindliche rechtsextreme Parteien außen vor lässt, erschien mir
am sinnvollsten, da die genannten fünf Parteien diejenigen sind, die
Chancen haben, einer der nächsten Regierungen anzugehören und somit aktiv
die Immigrationspolitik mitzugestalten. Die folgenden Texte sind Zitate von
den Websites der Parteien.
-       CDU/CSU: "Integration liegt somit in der Verantwortung des
Einzelnen, der Gesellschaft und des Staates. Sie braucht das Zusammenwirken
aller - auch die Mithilfe der Unternehmen (Š)Die Gesellschaft muss den
Zuwanderern Teilhabe am gesellschaftlichen Leben ermöglichen. Gleichzeitig
müssen die Menschen, die hier leben möchten, auch den Willen zur
Integration haben. Dazu gehören das Beherrschen der deutschen Sprache und
die Annahme der Werte und Normen des Grundgesetztes. Dies gilt insbesondere
für den Grundsatz der Gleichberechtigung von Frauen und Männern. Diese
Leitkultur in Deutschland garantiert, dass unsere Gesellschaft auch in
Zukunft zusammenhält. Ein unverbundenes Nebeneinander, das nur zu
Parallelgesellschaften führt, lehnen wir ab."
-       SPD: “Unterschiedliche Lebenswelten, Wertvorstellungen, kulturelle
Traditionen, Lebensweisen und die wechselseitige Anerkennung dieser
Unterschiede prägen das Zusammenleben in einer Einwanderungsgesellschaft
(Š)Durch die Begegnung von Menschen unterschiedlicher sozialer und
kultureller Herkunft beeinflussen sich Kulturen gegenseitig und verändern
sich (Š) Ohne das Kennenlernen anderer kultureller Ausdrucksweisen und den
Respekt vor anderen Kulturen kann aus dem Fremden nicht das vertraute
Andere werden (Š)Jede Integrationspolitik muss daher die kulturellen
Aspekte der Zuwanderung stärker einbeziehen (Š Die SPD ist) für eine humane
Kultur der Anerkennung statt "deutsche Leitkultur"."
-       FDP: “Die Liberalen treten für eine Gesellschaft ein, die offen ist
für Zuwanderung und kulturelle Einflüsse von außen, die aber das Maß ihrer
Offenheit selbst bestimmt und festen Regeln unterwirft (Š) Deutschland hat
Einwanderung und braucht Einwanderung (Š) Die liberale Buergergesellschaft
(Š)verlangt Bereitschaft zur Eingliederung, ohne jedoch eine gleichmachende
Anpassung einzufordern (Š) Systematische Einwanderungs- und
Eingliederungspolitik brauchen eine gesetzliche Grundlage (Š)Eine
erfolgreiche Integration der Zuwanderung setzt Integrationswillen, den
Abbau diskriminierender Hürden und Eingliederungshilfen voraus."
-       Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen: “Die multikulturelle Gesellschaft ist
Realität, die wir demokratisch gestalten wollen (Š)Unser Land muss sich
interkulturell öffnen - vor Ort in den Städten, in den sozialen
Regeldiensten, in Verbänden, Verwaltung und Politik (Š)Ein Zusammenleben in
gesellschaftlicher Vielfalt muss einhergehen mit der Anerkennung
gemeinsamer und verbindlicher Regeln. Maßstab sind die Grund- und
Menschenrechte (Š)Wir laden die Migrantinnen und Migranten ein, Bürger
dieses Landes zu werden, und setzen uns dafür ein, dass die Türen geöffnet
werden (Š)Wir werben für einen gesellschaftlichen Konsens, um (illegalen
Einwanderern) ein Angebot zur Legalisierung zu machen."
-       Die Linke: “Wir fordern (Š) aktives und passives Wahlrecht für
alle, die ihren Lebensmittelpunkt in Deutschland haben (Š) gleiche Rechte
beim Zugang zum Arbeitsmarkt (Š) das Recht auf die deutsche
Staatsbürgerschaft für alle Kinder, die hier geboren werden und deren
Eltern ihren Lebensmittelpunkt in Deutschland haben (Š) die Erleichterung
der Einbürgerung (Š) ein wirksames Antidiskriminierungsgesetz."

Einwanderer in Hessen

Mit 12,2% (laut Statistischem Bundesamt, 31. 12. 1998) hat Hessen einen
sehr hohen Immigrantenanteil, der nur von Hamburg (15,2%), Berlin (12,7%)
und Baden-Württemberg (12,5%) übertroffen wird. Die zehn Länder, aus denen
die meisten dieser Immigranten stammen, sind die Türkei (25,4%), Italien
(9,4), das frühere Jugoslawien (8,9), Griechenland (4,5), Kroatien, Polen (
je 3,4), Spanien (3,2), Marokko (2,9), die USA (2,7) und Iran (2,2).
Innerhalb Hessens konzentrieren sich die Immigranten jedoch auf das sehr
städtische Rhein-Main-Gebiet mit Frankfurt, welches selbst von 195.400 der
733.989 Ausländer Hessens bewohnt wird.

*Sofern nichts anderes gesagt wird, bezeichnet der Begriff “Deutschland" in
diesem Text immer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland, ebenso verwandte Begriffe
wie “deutsche Politiker",  “die Bevölkerung Deutschlands" etc.
**http://www.presseportal.de/pm/32522/769270/reader_s_digest_deutschland/:
Von 7800 Befragten aus Belgien, Deutschland, Großbritannien, Portugal, den
Niederlanden, Schweden, Spanien und der Schweiz stimmen 47% zu, dass
Immigranten ihr neues Heimatland bereichern, und 73% berichten von
positiven Erfahrungen mit Einwanderern im Alltag.

(TG)

******************************************************
5. MIGRATION TO TURKEY
******************************************************

Since the early 1980s Turkey's relationship with Europe and the Middle East
has been marked by the large migration flows through its territory, ranging
from regular migrants to irregular and transit migrants and asylum seekers.
A large portion of the asylum and refugee flows and transit migration
through Turkey and directed at Western European countries originates in the
Middle East. In addition, significant irregular migration flows to Turkey
originate in various Asian and African countries, with the aim of reaching
Western European countries. Irregular migration flows into Turkey are
characterized by three main trends.
The first involves mainly migrants from Eastern European countries, such as
Romania and Moldova, who come to Turkey in search of work. Some Turkish
farmers and construction companies in the western regions of the country
have come to rely heavily on East European labour migrants, while many
middle- and upper-class families employ mainly Moldovan women as maids.
Many of these entered Turkey legally but subsequently overstayed their visa
or failed to get them renewed. The second form of irregular migration to
Turkey concerns the transit migrants who came to Turkey mainly from the
Middle East (predominantly Iranians and Iraqis) and from various Asian
(e.g. Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) and African (e.g. Congo, Nigeria
and Somalia) countries. These migrants often target Turkey as a transit
zone as they attempt to reach and enter West European countries. Most of
them fall within the illegal entry and departure category, while others
drift into illegality as they overstay their tourist visas. The third group
of irregular migrants includes rejected asylum seekers who are reluctant to
return home and are in search of illegal jobs and/or opportunities to
migrate illegally to another country.
Although some high-level public officials refer to around one million
illegal foreign workers in Turkey, no direct and reliable data regarding
the details of irregular immigration in Turkey are actually available. But
there are some indications. The Bureau for Aliens, Borders and Asylum at
the Directorate of General Security in the Ministry of the Interior (BFBA)
recorded nearly 95,000 cases of irregular migrants in 2000 - 55 per cent of
whom were apprehended as they entered or left illegally, with overstayers
accounting for the remaining 45 per cent. The ten principal countries of
origin are Iraq (19%), Afghanistan (10%), Moldova (9%), Iran (9%), Pakistan
(5%), Romania (5%), Russian Federation(5%), Ukraine (5%), Georgia (3%) and
Bangladesh (3%).
The most recent case of immigration by ethnic Turks to Turkey occurred when
over 310,000 Bulgarians of Turkish background fled the repressive Bulgarian
regime in 1989 . Subsequently, more than half of them returned to Bulgaria,
with only a few moving on to third countries, the rest remained in Turkey.
In late 1992, another group of refugees with certain affinities to Turkey
arrived from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Though some of these had valid travel
documents, the vast majority arrived illegally. Most of the Bosnian Muslims
who came to Turkey were able to stay with relatives and Turkish citizens of
Bosnian descent and many of them intended to go on to the West and resettle
there. Although there are no exact figures on how many Bosnians were in
Turkey at any one time, some reliable sources put the figure at between
20,000 and 25,000. While more than three-fourths of Bosnians returned to
their homeland, a small proportion remained with relatives and friends in
Turkey and over 3,000 obtained Turkish citizenship .An estimated 5,000
Bosnians who had come to Turkey with the intention of migrating to the West
eventually obtained refugee status there.

Current issues of concern

The EU authorities are urging Turkey to devote more resources and energy
towards its efforts to combat and control illegal migration and the
trafficking of human beings across and within its borders. Turkey is also
being asked to adopt the necessary measures to stem the tide of irregular
migrants originating in Turkey itself - demands which Turkey feels are
imposing a further heavy burden on its already stretched technical,
financial and legislative resources. However, these demands and
considerations are central to EU-Turkish relations and create many areas of
concern for both sides, from security and human rights issues to economics
and politics.

Legislation, policies and practice

The Law on Settlement was adopted in 1934 (Law 2510, 14 June 1934) in
connection with the arrival of ethnic Turks in the early years of the
Republic. It continues to be the main legislative text dealing with
immigration, and determines who can enter, settle and/or apply for refugee
status in Turkey. It provides for individuals of Turkish descent and
culture to be accepted as immigrants and refugees in Turkey. Its relevance
and implications regarding irregular migration are indirect. For instance,
irregular immigrants, mainly asylum seekers of Turkish descent and culture,
have been allowed to stay in the country either on an unofficial basis, or
even to settle, work and eventually obtain Turkish citizenship. Although
this tendency to favour people of Turkish descent and culture has often
been counter-balanced by concerns over the possible arrival of large
numbers of ethnic Turks, out of political considerations Turkish
authorities have tended to adopt a liberal attitude towards such immigrants

Challenges Ahead

Turkey's traditional immigration policy was strongly shaped by
nation-building concerns, as well as efforts to sustain a homogenous
national identity. Turkey's current ambition to become an EU member and the
accompanying political liberalization is straining the state's traditional
concept of national identity. There is growing pressure to adopt policies
that recognize Turkey's ethnic and cultural diversity. However, this
pressure is not yet reflected in immigration legislation. Parliament is
currently considering replacing the Settlement Law of 1934. The new draft
law, although considerably changed, continues to restrict the right to
immigration exclusively to people of "Turkish descent and culture." If past
practice is taken as a reference point, this will probably mean that those
identities that the state deems unlikely to melt into a homogenous Turkish
identity will continue to be excluded. In other words, Albanians, Bosnians,
Circassians, Pomaks, Tatars, and Turks-mostly from the Balkans-will be able
to immigrate to Turkey, while others will face a closed door. Minorities
claiming a link to Turkey who are not Sunni Muslims, that is, everyone from
Armenians and Assyrians to Greeks and Jews, as well as unassimilated Kurds
and Alevis, will find it difficult to immigrate. Such a policy will not be
in harmony with the emerging European Union "common" immigration policy,
which increasingly emphasizes civic connections to host territory,
employment prospects, and cultural diversity, rather than a prospective
immigrant's ethnic or national origin as grounds for immigration.

African immigrants in Turkey

In the past decade or so, an increasing number of Africans have arrived in
Turkey as transit migrants or asylum seekers. Although they enter Turkey
from various points, the majority of them live in Istanbul. NGO
representatives and officials estimate the number of irregular
African migrants in Istanbul to be between 4,000 and 6,000.
A report is prepared  to describe the demographic characteristics of
African migrants, their reasons for and patterns of migration, as well as
their living conditions and problems in Istanbul. The report is based on
the findings of the research conducted from February 2005 to 2006 in
Istanbul, which included a survey of 133 Africans, in-depth interviews with
a number of them, as well as interviews with elite informants in
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the Turkish police in Istanbul
and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) office in
Ankara.
Compared to Eastern European irregular migrants, African migrants'
movements to and from Turkey appear less circular, that is, most of them do
not exit and reenter Turkey over the course of a year. However, there may
be an exception to this in the case of traders from West Africa,
particularly some Nigerians, Senegalese and Ghanaians, who appear to enter
and exit Turkey to carry on their informal suitcase trade. The difference
between the patterns of Eastern European irregular migrants' and Africans'
movements may stem from several reasons: often, Africans' objective is to
secure transit on
to Western Europe, not employment in Turkey; and besides, Turkey has
tightened its visa regime in an effort to curb irregular migration, as part
of its obligations towards the EU. At the beginning of 2005, the Turkish
visa regime for 48 Sub-Saharan African countries was changed. Since then,
the applications of persons from those countries need to be approved by the
MOI before a Turkish consulate can issue visas. Moreover, Turkey cancelled
tourist visa exemptions to Kenya and South Africa in 2003 . Police officers
said that, since the visa regime change, the number of irregular African
migrants who arrive with valid visas and then overstay the duration of
their visas has declined.

The Survey

The respondents to the survey were from 11 different nationalities, Somalis
(53) and Nigerians (21) being the largest groups. The other respondents
were from Ghana, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo,24 Mauritania,
Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Burundi, Sudan and Djibouti. 78 were men and 55
were women.
In response to the question "why did you come to Turkey and not some other
country?" 40.8 percent of the respondents marked "I was deceived that I
would be taken to Greece but was left in Turkey"  79.6 percent of Somali
respondents marked this answer as well as 77.8 percent of Mauritanians and
57.1 percent of Eritreans. 31.3 percent of the respondents said they came
to Turkey because they had friends here. Half or more of the Nigerians,
Ghanaians, Congolese,Ethiopians, Kenyans and Burundians marked this option.
A total of 11.6 percent of the respondents expressed the opinion that it
was easy to enter Turkey legally or illegally, and easy to move on to
Europe via Turkey. A couple of Nigerians said they came to Turkey to find
jobs as football players. Although no Ghanaians marked this option in the
survey, the interview with one Ghanaian man indicates that finding
employment in a Turkish football team was what motivated him to travel to
Turkey. 8.8 percent said they came to Turkey for "other" reasons, their
explanations for which included various economic factors as well as plans
to pursue higher education in Turkey.

Life in Istanbul: Social Interactions

In parallel fashion, respondents' opinions on their relationship with
Turkish citizens were overall not negative. 35.6 percent said they had no
problem with Turks, 28.8 percent said they had good relations, whereas only
4.8 percent said their relationship to Turks was bad. 26 percent reported
having no relation with Turkish citizens, which may be partly  because of
having arrived in Istanbul very recently. A related question in the survey
was on the greatest problems that African migrants face in Istanbul.
"Discrimination" was cited as a problem in only 4.7 percent of the
responses to that question and "ill treatment by neighbors" was cited in
only 0.4 percent of them. However, the low report of "discrimination" might
be misleading because of the wording of this option in the question. During
the interviews, people's perceptions about others' treatment of them became
apparent in their accounts of personal experiences and anecdotes, rather
than through abstract concepts such as "discrimination." Perhaps confirming
this observation, 29.5 of the respondents mentioned "ill treatment by
strangers" as a problem although they did not mention discrimination.
One of the reasons why respondents did not have much interaction with
Africans from other nationalities, let alone Turkish citizens, may have to
do with language barriers. Only 26.5 percent spoke English, 13 percent
spoke Arabic and 11.4 percent spoke French. 47 percent spoke various native
languages. Regarding the weakness of their interactions with Turkish
citizens, African migrants' weak Turkish language skills might be a
hindrance. Only 13 people rated their knowledge of Turkish to be "quite
well," 18 said they knew some Turkish, 41 knew very little Turkish and 55
did not speak Turkish at all. The great majority of those who said they
spoke some Turkish or knew Turkish well (20 out of 31) had been staying in
Turkey for more than a year.
72 people who responded to the question "do you think Turkish police treats
Africans differently than other migrants?" answered in the negative while
20 said "yes" and 33 said they did not have an opinion. The largest group
who thought police treatment towards them was poor were Nigerians (6
people), but more Nigerians thought that police treatment towards them was
no different (12 people) Regarding the question on the greatest problems of
African migrants in Istanbul, only 1.7 percent of the respondents cited
"ill treatment by police".

Life in Istanbul: Problems

The respondents were asked how they provided for themselves financially.
The largest number of responses was "I do odd jobs" (31.3 percent). 16
percent of the respondents said they had no source of income. 13 percent
said they "worked for wages in a factory/workshop/firm," 10.7 percent said
they sold goods, 6.9 percent said they received money from charities. Some
said they borrowed money from friends (6.1 percent), some of their families
sent for them (5.3 percent). Among the 6.1 percent of the respondents who
marked "other" in answering this question, some mentioned that they were
living on money which they brought with them to Turkey, and a couple
mentioned working for NGOs.
The greatest problem faced by the respondents was financial. In answer to
the question "what are your greatest problems in Istanbul?" about 42
percent of the respondents pointed out "lack of income". As mentioned in
the previous section, the second most cited problem was "ill treatment by
strangers" (29.5 percent) and the third most mentioned problem was housing
(9.8 percent). Discrimination came fourth with 4.7 percent and "hunger" was
cited in 3.8 percent of the responses. Those people who marked "other" in
response to this question cited their health problems, psychological
problems and feelings of hopelessness. An interesting finding is that the
ratio of people who highlighted lack of incomes as their greatest problem
did not show much variance across different nationalities.
A significant problem for irregular migrants and asylum seekers who have
children is access to education. People who do not have legal residency in
Turkey are unable to send their school-age children to primary school,
although there is a vague mention of education for asylum seekers' and
refugees' children in the relevant government regulations. Among the
respondents to the survey, 14 people said they had children in Istanbul. 5
of them were able to send their kids to a school program run by a church;
while 8 said their children received no schooling here. One person's child
was too young to go to school.

Income Earning

There are several small shops operated by Africans in Istanbul. In
Tarlabas¸ž, there is a restaurant, Lady V's, operated by a Nigerian woman,
situated in an apartment on the second floor of an old building. The
restaurant offered Nigerian food and also some imported items for personal
care. In Tarlabas¸ž, several Nigerian men sell/rent African movie videos,
music tapes and CDs, which are brought to Turkey by Nigerian traders. In
Laleli, a small store operated as an "African café" where some imported
food items were on sale. All of these establishments appeared to be
informal.
There are a few formal establishments operated by Africans as well. The
easiest way to have a legal business for a foreigner is to be married to a
Turkish citizen and to have obtained a residence and work permit in this
way. Some people can earn a residence and work permit in Turkey after
graduating from a Turkish university and finding employment. A Sudanese man
operated a music club in Beyog˜lu frequented by Africans, Turkish citizens
and European expatriates alike. Two Nigerians who were married to Turkish
citizens also said that they had small trading businesses in Istanbul.
Based on the accounts of the interviewees, other African-operated cafes
existed a few years ago, indicating high turnover in such entrepreneurial
activities.
Several Eritrean and Ethiopian women were reported working as domestic
laborers in private homes. These women entered Turkey illegally through the
Syrian border and had previously been working in Lebanon in domestic
services. There is also evidence that members of evangelical churches who
help African asylum seekers may employ them as domestic help.
Odd jobs such as cleaning or carrying boxes for storeowners are called
çabuk çabuk by African migrants in Istanbul. Meaning "do it quickly" or
"hurry up" in Turkish, çabuk çabuk refers to doing some work for food or
for a little cash. From the perspective of the "employer," this is
something that needs to be done quickly. But from the Africans'
perspective, çabuk çabuk has a double connotation. On the one hand, it
means that some Turks order them around. On the other, çabuk çabuk is
literally a fleeting experience that fails to provide for their daily needs.

Conclusion

Turkey should take steps to provide access to healthcare, housing and
education for the African asylum seeking population. It should also
consider policies for granting work permits to asylum applicants and
refugees and simplify the application for work permits by migrants.
Turkey plans to create reception centers for asylum seekers and refugees as
part of its National Programme. On the one hand, the establishment of
reception centers should be hastened. On the other hand, Turkish civil
society should also assume a role in providing humanitarian and social
assistance to migrants and asylum seekers. Although under-funded,
it is observed that the existing NGOs catering to asylum seekers (mainly
Africans) played a vital role in helping these people adjust to the new
realities of their lives in Turkey. Given that the number of asylum seekers
is not overwhelming, if domestic NGOs also became involved, social and
humanitarian assistance would become more widely available.


* Mirekoc Research Projects

(BB)

------------------------------------------------------------

TÜRKI™YE'YE GÖÇ

1980li yžllaržn bas¸žndan beri, Türkiye'nin Avrupa ve Orta Dog˜u'yla olan
ilis¸kisi, düzenli ve düzensiz, transit göç ve sžg˜žnmacž akžs¸larž
tarafžndan etkilendi.Türkiye üzerinden geçen ve Batžya yönelen ,sžg˜žnmacž
ve transit göç akžs¸žnžn büyük bir kžsmž Orta Dog˜u kökenlidir. Türkiye'ye
akan bu genis¸ miktarlž düzensiz göç akžs¸larž, Batž Avrupa ülkelerine
gitme hedefiyle yola çžkan deg˜is¸ik Asya ve Avrupa ülkelerinden
gelmektedir. Türkiye'ye akan bu düzensiz göç , 3 ana eg˜ilim tarafžndan
s¸ekillenmektedir.
Birinci grubu, is¸ aramak için Romanya ve Moldova gibi Dog˜u Avrupa
ülkelerinden Türkiye'ye  gelen göçmenler içerir. Ülkenin batž bölgesindeki
bazž çiftçiler ve ins¸aat firmalarž, bu is¸çi göçmenlerden önemli ölçüde
yararlanžrken; zengin, yüksek sžnžftan  aileler, özellikle  Moldovalž
kadžnlarž , ev is¸lerinde yardžmcž olarak is¸e almaktadžrlar. Büyük bir
bölümü, Türkiye'ye yasal yolla gelmis¸ fakat vize süresi sona ermis¸ ve
tekrar yenileyememis¸ göçmenlerden olus¸maktadžr. I™kinci grup ise Orta
Dog˜u(özellikle  I™ran, Irak),farklž Asya(Banglades¸, Pakistan, Sri Lanka)
ve Afrika(Kongo, Nijerya, Somali) ülkelerinden olus¸ur. Bu göçmenler
genellikle Batž Avrupa ülkelerine gitmek için  Türkiye'yi transit bölge
olarak kullanžrlar. Üçüncüsü, ülkelerine dönmeye gönüllü olan, yasal
olmayan is¸ arayan ve dig˜er ülkelere yasal olmayan yollarla göç etmek
isteyen, sžg˜žnma talebi reddedilmis¸ düzensiz göç grubudur.
Bazž yüksek makamlaržn Türkiye'de 1 milyon civaržnda yasadžs¸ž çalžs¸an
is¸çi oldug˜una deg˜inmesine rag˜men, Türkiye'deki düzensiz göç rakamžnž
bildiren kesin ve güvenilir bir bilgiye ulas¸žlamamaktadžr. Ancak BFBA (The
Bureau for Aliens, Borders and Asylum at the Directorate of General
Security in the Ministry of the Interior) verilerine göre, 2000 yžlžnda
düzensiz göçmen sayžsž 95.000 kadardž.
Son büyük göç dalgasž 1989'da Bulgaristan rejiminden kaçan Türk kökenli
Bulgarlaržn olus¸turdug˜u 310.000 in üzerinde etnik türktü. Fakat bunlaržn
yaržsž tekrar Bulgaristan'a dönerken,çok az bir kžsmž dig˜er ülkelere göç
etti, dig˜erleri Türkiye'de yas¸amlaržnž sürdürdü. 1992'de Bosna ve
Hersek'ten bir göç akžmž gerçekles¸ti. Bunlaržn bir kžsmž geçerli yolculuk
dokümanlaržna sahipken, kalan büyük çog˜unluk illegal yollardan ülkeye
girdi. Müslüman Bosnalžlar'žn birçog˜u Türkiye'deki akrabalaržnda kalžrken,
dig˜erleri Batžya gitmeye ve orada yas¸am kurmaya çalžs¸tžlar.Kesin bir
rakam olmamakla birlikte Türkiye'de 20-25 bin arasžnda Bosnalž bulundug˜u
öngörülüyor. 5000 kadar Bosnalžnžnsa Batžda mülteci statüsü kazandžg˜ž
tahmin edilmektedir.

Gündemdeki Konular

AB yetkilileri, kendi sžnžrlarž içinde insan ticareti, yasal olmayan göçle
mücadelede Türkiye'yi daha fazla kaynak ve enerji harcamasž için zorluyor.
Bununla birlikte güvenlik ve insan haklarž, ekonomi ve politika gibi AB ve
Türkiye için merkezde duran sorunlar her iki taraf için de endis¸e
yaratžyor.

Kanun, politikalar, uygulama

1934 yžlžnda cumhuriyetin ilk yžllaržnda Türkiye'ye gelen etnik Türklerle
ilgili olarak "Oturma" 'yla ilgili yasa kabul edildi.Bu yasa halen
yürürlükte göçmenlikle ilgili konulara deg˜inen kanun olmayž sürdürüyor.
Düzensiz göçmenler, özellikle sžg˜žnmacžlar için Türk vatandas¸lžg˜ž
kazanmada dolaylž fayda sag˜ladž.

Yoldaki gelis¸meler

       Meclis, "Oturum" yasasžnž deg˜is¸tirmeyi düs¸ünüyor. Yeni yasa
taslag˜ž ise  Türk kökenli göçmenlere öncelik tanžmayž sürdürüyor.  Eg˜er
geçmis¸ deneyim referans olarak alžnžrsa, bu ileride Türk kökene sahip
olmayan dig˜er göçmenlerin tamamžyla homojenik olarak Türk kimlig˜ine
kavus¸amayacag˜žnž gösteriyor.. Dig˜er bir deyis¸le,Arnavutlaržn,
Bosnalžlaržn, Çerkezlerin, Tatarlaržn ve Türklerin - çog˜unlukla
Balkanlardan olanlaržn- Türkiye'ye göç edebilecekken, dig˜erlerinin kapalž
bir kapžyla kars¸žlayacag˜ž anlamžna geliyor.

Türkiye'deki Afrikalž Göçmenler

Son 10 yžl içinde Türkiye'ye deg˜is¸ik yollardan birçok Afrikalž göçmen ve
sžg˜žnmacž geldi. Bunlardan düzensiz göçmen olarak 4.000-6.000 arasžnda
Afrikalž olundug˜u öngörülmektedir.
2005'in bas¸žnda Türk vize rejimi 48 Sub-Sahara Afrika ülkesi için
deg˜is¸tirildi. Polis yetkilileri vize rejimi deg˜is¸tig˜i için ,ülkeye
geçerli vizeyle gelen ve vize süresini as¸an Afrikalž göçmen sayžsžnda
azalma oldug˜unu belirtti.


Anket

Katžlžmcžlar, 11 deg˜is¸ik ülkeden olus¸tu. Bunlar içinde Somali ve Njerya
en genis¸ gruptu. Dig˜er ülkeler  Gana, Kongo, Kongo,Mauritania, Eritrea,
Ethiopia, Kenya, Burundi, Sudan and Djibouti. 78 erkek ve  55 were kadžn..
"Türkiyeye neden geldiniz?" sorusuna kars¸žlžk, "Yunanistan'a
götürüleceg˜ime dair kandžržldžm ve  Türkiye'de bžraktžlar", "Arkadas¸laržm
burada","Türkiye'ye legal ya da illegal olarak girmek ve buradan dig˜er
Avrupa ülkelerine girmek kolay","Futbolcu olarak is¸ bulmak istiyorum" ve
ekonomik, eg˜itim ve sosyal neden laerden dolayž geldiklerine dair cevaplar
verdiler.

I™stanbul'da yas¸am

"I™stanbul'da kars¸žlas¸tžg˜žnžz en büyük problem nedir?" sorusuna
kars¸žlžk, katžlžmcžlar;"ayržmcžlžk", "koms¸ularžmdan kötü davranžs¸"   ,
"yabancžlardan kötü davranžs¸" gibi cevaplar alžndž. Bazžlarž ise hiçbir
kötü davranžs¸la kars¸žlas¸madžklaržnž söylediler.
Dig˜er vatandas¸larla neden ilis¸ki kuramadžklaržna dair soruya kars¸žlžk
cevap dil sorunuydu."Türk polisi size dig˜er yabancžlara davrandžg˜žndan
daha mž farklž davranžyor?" sorusuna kars¸žlžk 72 kis¸i hayžr, 20 kis¸i
evet, 33 kis¸i bi fikri olmadžg˜ž cevabžnž verdi. Polisin onlara kötü
davrandžg˜žnž söyleyen Nijeryalžlar(6), ancak farklž davrandžg˜žnž
düs¸ünmediklerini söyledi.

Problemler

Ekonomik olarak hayatžnžzž nasžl sürdürüyorsunuz sorusuna,bir kžsmž tuhaf
is¸leri oldug˜unu, bir kžsmž çalžs¸madžg˜žnž,bir kžsmž fabrikada,atölyede,
s¸irkette ücretli is¸çi olarak çalžs¸tžg˜žnž,bir kžsmž es¸ya sattžg˜žnž,bir
kžsmž yardžm derneklerinden para aldžg˜žnž söyledi. Bazž katžlžmcžlar
ailelerinden para aldžklaržnž, bazžlarž yanlaržnda getirdig˜i parayž
harcadžklaržnž belirttiler.
Sžg˜žnmacžlar ve düzensiz göçmenler için dig˜er büyük bir problem de
çocuklarž için eg˜itim imkanž sag˜lanmamasžydž.Türkiye'de oturum izni
olmayanlaržn, çocuklaržnž okula gönderme fžrsatlarž yok. Katžlžmcžlaržn
sadece 14 tanesinin çocug˜u vardž. 5'i çocuklaržnž kilisenin sag˜ladžg˜ž
okula gönderdig˜ini söylerken, 8 kis¸i okul imkanž olmadžklaržnž söyledi.
Dig˜er çocuk ise okula gitmek için küçüktü.

Para kazanma

I™stanbul'da Afrikalžlar tarafžndan is¸letilen bazž yerler oldug˜u
bilinmekte. Tarlabas¸ž'nda Nijeryalž bir kadžnžn restoranž oldug˜u, birçok
Nijeryalžnžn video, kaset, cd sattžg˜ž, Laleli'de bir Cafe Africa oldug˜u
kaydedildi.
Yasal bir is¸ sahibi olmanžn en kolay yolu bir Türkle evlenmek, böylelikle
oturum ve çalžs¸ma iznine sahip olmak. Sudanlž bir adam Beyog˜lu'nda bir
club is¸letirken,Türkle evli olan 2 Nijeryalž ise ticaret yapžyor.
Eritreli ve Etiyopyalž kadžnlaržn ev is¸i yaptžg˜ž kaydedilirken,bazž
Afrikalžlaržn "çabuk çabuk" dedikleri hos¸ olmayan is¸lerde çalžs¸tžklarž
belirlendi. Bu tür is¸ler genellikle patronlarž tarafžndan kžsa sürede çok
çalžs¸malarž beklendig˜i için çabuk çabuk olarak adlandžržlžyor.

Sonuç

Türkiye sag˜lžk, baržnma, eg˜itim gibi konularda adžmlar atmalž. Türkiye
ulusal programž olarak sžg˜žnmacžlar ve mülteciler için bazž merkezler
açmayž planlžyor. Sosyal ve insani yardžmžn genis¸letilmesi gerekiyor.

Kaynak : Mire koç Aras¸tžrma Projeleri

(BB)

******************************************************
6. EUROPEAN CITIZENSHIP AND DEMOCRACY IN MOLDOVA
******************************************************

Today, the 17th of September, I came back all the way from Moldova, where I
attended a one week training course on Democracy and European Citizenship.
At first I have to admit that I was a little bit surprised that I was going
to Moldova, because I even didn't know exactly where to find it on the map.
But I am glad I went their, because I really had a good time and I learned
a lot. I met young people from Moldova, Poland, Russia, Rumenia,
Azerbaijan, Portugal and France and I learned about their cultures and the
organisations they are working for. Almost all the participants of the
training are involved in an NGO in their country, so we could share
experiences and exchange our ideas about youth work and about the topics of
the training course: democracy and European citizenship. We learned a lot
about Youth in Action and what you can do within this program from the
European Union. We even worked on the preparations for organizing a project
ourselves. Where to start and what to do if you want to organise for
example a youth exchange or a training course? This has really inspired me
and I would really like to become more involved in these things, but I
think with my European Volunteering Service at Circolo I will be able to do
a lot.

The training lasted for 8 days and the trainers were Asa from Sweden and
Marta from Poland. They were very enthusiastic and made us think about
democracy and European citizenship in many original ways. For example we
talked about Europe: do you feel yourself European and why (not)? How do
you see Europe? We found out that everybody saw himself as a citizen of
Europe (next to being a citizen of his own village and country, what comes
on the first place) and we had quite the same ideas about Europe. We all
agreed that it is a rich continent and that we as citizens of Europe have a
lot of freedom and opportunities. There are borders (literally and
figurative), but you can easily cross them. Europe is a continent with a
long history and a lot of diversity and it is good to look behind borders
to see and taste these differences. It is good to know what is happening in
the rest of Europe and feel somehow a kind of responsibility for this,
because you feel connected to other people who live in Europe, even while
they live in another country, with another culture. We also shared ideas
about problems in and around Europe. How can you for example encourage
people to go voting and what can be done to protect the environment?  How
can you prevent discrimination and racism and what can be done against
poverty? We did brainstorm sessions about these topics in which we wrote
down a lot of ideas that we discussed later.

Asa and Marta were very creative in the ways in which they tried to let us
learn in an informal way. They teached us how to be creative and inventive,
because that is what is needed when you work with young people and try to
learn them things in an informal way. We did simulations, we painted, we
played theatre and always at the end of the day we had reflection groups to
evaluate the day. In the evenings we had dinner together and discovered the
nightlife of Chisinau. The group went on very well with each other and
everybody really wanted to share and learn from each other. We saw
spectacular dances from Azerbaijan, Moldova and the other countries,
listened to all kinds of traditional music, drank vodka and cognac with the
Russian girls and ate the Dutch cheese I bought (in a shop in Chisinau,
ssshtŠ.). Wednesday we had an excursion to the countryside, where we
visited a church in a cliff. It was a very interesting historic place,
where we could see how monks had lived in the cliffs. Everybody liked it to
leave the capital of Moldova for one day to see the countryside. In my
opinion the city Chisinau is not very special. There is one main street in
which are all the important buildings and there are two very nice parks,
but for the rest everything is very old and there is a lot of traffic which
simply drives over you if you don't be careful. That is why I liked the day
at the countryside so much. The nature of Moldova is beautiful and the
place we visited was very peaceful and quiet. When I saw the little
villages I wondered how the people are living there. Moldova is a very poor
country and you can see that everywhere. For me everything was very cheap,
but compared to what the people earn there, life must be very hard. A
teacher at university earns only 200 euro per month, so people have to work
very hard. I saw people at the supermarket and the hotel who worked from
the early morning until midnight and I spoke people who explained me that
life in Moldova is very hard.

The fact that Moldova is a poor country and that it can be hard for people
to live here, makes Moldova one of the largest emigration countries in the
world. Many Moldovian people migrate to Russia and Western Europe and the
money they send back to Moldova is very significant for the Moldovian
economy. Official remittances constitute over 20 percent of GDP and
compared to other countries this is very much. These remittances helped to
reduce household poverty in Moldova and provide essential foreign exchange.
The number of immigrants in Moldova is quite small. The immigrants come
foremost from Turkey (661 persons), Romania (241), Ukraine (138) and Italy
(93) to work in Moldova. 46% of them have higher education. The African
community in Moldova is very small. At an ethnic festival I talked with
some African migrants who live in Moldova. Keita Abdramane from the NGO
Fatima told me that the African community in Moldova has been larger, but
nowadays there are only a few Africans left. It is hard to survive as a
migrant in Moldova.

This trip to Moldova has made me realize that not in whole Europe life is
as good as in Holland or Italy. For me it was the first time that I went so
far to the east of Europe and it has really opened my eyes. Because many
participants came from Eastern Europe, I learned a lot about how it is to
live in Eastern Europe. I talked with them about their culture, their
country, their way of live and we compared for example the democratic
systems in the different countries. I think that if you have the
possibility, it is good to travel, speak to people and see with your own
eyes how it is to live in another country and discover other cultures. That
is why I am so enthusiastic about the program of Youth in Action, because
it gives youth this possibility. The training has really inspired me to
promote Youth in Action and make more use of it myself, because I think it
is very important and it gives lots of opportunities to learn in a nice and
informal way. It broadens your view and makes you more aware of the world
you are living in and how to participate in this world as an active
citizen.  

(JvL)
------------------------------------------------------------

Europees burgerschap en democratie in Moldavië.

Vandaag, 17 september, ben ik terug gekomen uit Moldavië, waar ik met
jongeren uit Europa een training heb gevolgd over democratie en Europees
burgerschap. Ten eerste moet ik toegeven dat ik een beetje verbaasd was,
toen ik hoorde dat ik naar Moldavië zou gaan voor een training. Ik moest op
een kaart opzoeken waar Moldavië precies ligt en ik had geen idee wat ik
kon verwachten. Hoewel het dus niet een land is dat ik zelf snel uit zou
kiezen om heen te gaan, ben ik heel blij dat ik gegaan ben. Ik heb jonge
mensen ontmoet uit Moldavië, Polen, Rusland, Roemenië, Azeraijan, Portugal
en Frankrijk en ik heb een hoop geleerd over hun cultuur en de organisaties
waar ze voor werken. Bijna alle deelnemers van de training werken voor een
NGO in hun land, dus we konden onze ervaringen uitwisselen en met elkaar
praten over jongerenwerk en de onderwerpen van de training. We hebben een
hoop geleerd over Youth in Action en wat je kunt doen binnen dit programma
van de Europese Unie. We hebben zelfs gewerkt aan een eigen project dat we
in de toekomst misschien zelf kunnen organiseren. Dit heeft me heel erg
geïnspireerd en wie weet kan ik de training die ik bedacht heb in de
toekomst ook echt een keer organiseren, dat lijkt me geweldig.

De training duurde 8 dagen en de trainers waren Asa uit Zweden en Marta uit
Polen, twee enthousiaste meiden die ons op vele verschillende manieren na
lieten denken over democratie en Europees burgerschap. We hebben
bijvoorbeeld gepraat over Europa: voel je jezelf Europeaan en waarom
(niet)? We kwamen erachter dat iedereen zichzelf zag als burger van Europa,
terwijl iedereen zich op de eerste plaats natuurlijk toch meer verbonden
blijft voelen aan zijn eigen land en stad. Iedereen had ongeveer dezelfde
ideeën over Europa, namelijk dat het een rijk continent is an dat wij als
burgers van Europa veel vrijheid en veel mogelijkheden hebben. Er zijn
grenzen (letterlijk en figuurlijk), maar die kun je makkelijk passeren.
Europa is een continent met een lange geschiedenis en veel diversiteit en
het is goed om over grenzen heen te kijken en de verschillen tussen de
landen en culturen te zien en proeven. Ik denk dat het belangrijk is om op
de hoogte te zijn van wat er gebeurt in de rest van Europa en om hier een
zekere verantwoordelijkheid voor te voelen, omdat je je verbonden voelt met
andere mensen die in Europa leven, ook al leven ze in een ander land, met
een andere cultuur. Tijdens de training hebben we ook ideeën uitgewisseld
over problemen binnen Europa. Hoe kun je bijvoorbeeld mensen aanmoedigen om
te gaan stemmen? Wat kun je doen om de natuur te beschermen? Hoe kun je
discriminatie en racisme tegengaan en wat kun je doen tegen armoede? Over
dit soort vragen hebben we gebrainstormd om vervolgens te praten over wat
we opgeschreven hadden.

Asa en Marta waren erg creatief in de manieren waarop ze ons na probeerden
te laten denken over Europees burgerschap en democratie. Ze leerden ons om
creatief en inventief te zijn, want als je met jongeren werkt en je wilt
hen dingen leren op een informele manier, dan moet je creatief zijn. We
hebben simulaties gedaan, getekend, theater gemaakt en altijd aan het eind
van de dag evalueerden we de dag. 's Avonds aten we met zijn allen en
daarna ontdekten we het nachtleven van Chisinau, de hoofdstad van Moldavië,
waar we training gegeven werd. We hadden een leuke groep en iedereen wilde
echt van elkaar leren en zijn ervaringen delen. We zagen spectaculaire
dansen uit Azerbaijan, Moldavië en de andere landen, we luisterden naar
allerlei soorten traditionele muziek, we probeerden de Russische meiden bij
te houden met wodka en cognac drinken en we aten de Nederlandse kaas, die
ik helaas in de supermarkt van Moldavië had moeten kopen. Woensdag hadden
we een excursie naar het platteland, waar we een kerk in een berg bezocht
hebben. Het was een hele interessante plaats, waar we konden zien hoe
monniken in de bergen leefden. Iedereen vond het fijn om de hoofdstad van
Moldavië voor een dag te verlaten en wat van de rest van het land te zien.
Om eerlijk te zijn vond Chisinau niet zo'n mooie of interessante stad. Er
is één hele grote straat waaraan alle belangrijke gebouwen van de stad
gevestigd zijn en er zijn twee mooie parken, maar verder is er niet veel te
zien. Veel gebouwen zijn vervallen en het verkeer raast door de stad.
Daarom vond ik het zo fijn om een dag naar het platteland te gaan, het was
er heerlijk rustig. Toen ik de dorpen zag, vroeg ik me af hoe de mensen
daar leven. Moldavië is een heel arm land en dat kun je overal zien. Voor
mij was alles heel goedkoop, maar als je kijkt naar wat men verdient, moet
het leven er heel zwaar zijn. Een onderwijzer op de universiteit verdient
maar 200 euro per maand. Ik zag mensen in de supermarkt en het hotel werken
van 's ochtends vroeg tot 's avonds laat en ik hoorde van inwoners van
Chisinau dat het leven er heel moeilijk is, men moet heel hard en veel
werken.

Het feit dat Moldavië zo'n arm land is, zorgt ervoor dat veel inwoners
emigreren. Veel inwoners van Moldavië emigreren naar West-Europa en naar
Rusland en het geld dat zij terug sturen naar Moldavië is erg belangrijk
voor de economie, het is ongeveer 20% van het BNP. Het aantal immigranten
in Moldavië is er klein. De meeste immigranten komen uit Turkije (661),
Roemenië (241) , Oekraïne (138) en Italië (93) om te werken in Moldavië. 46
% van hen is hoger opgeleid. De Afrikaanse gemeenschap in Moldavië is erg
klein. Op een etnisch festival sprak ik met een aantal Afrikaanse migranten
die in Moldavië leven. Keita Abdramane van de NGO Fatima vertelde me dat de
Afrikaanse gemeenschap in Moldavië groter geweest is, maar tegenwoordig is
er weinig meer van overgebleven. Het is moeilijk om als migrant te
overleven in een land dat zo arm is als Moldavië.

De reis naar Moldavië heeft me doen realiseren dat niet overal in Europa
het leven zo goed is als in Nederland en Italië. Het was de eerste keer dat
ik zover naar het oosten van Europa ben ggaan en het heeft mijn ogen
geopend. Omdat veel deelnemers uit Oost-Europa kwamen, heb ik veel geleerd
over het leven daar. Ik heb met ze gepraat over hun land, hun cultuur en
hun manier van leven en we hebben bijvoorbeeld de democratische structuur
van onze landen vergeleken. Ik denk dat als je de mogelijkheid hebt, het
heel goed is om te reizen en met mensen uit andere landen te spreken. Je
ziet dan met je eigen ogen hoe het is om ergens anders te leven en je
ontdekt veel nieuwe dingen. Dit is waarom ik zo enthousiast ben over het
programma van Youth in Action, want het geeft jongeren de mogelijkheid om
dit te doen. De training heeft me echt geïnspireerd om Youth in Action te
promoten en om zelf meer gebruik te gaan maken van de mogelijkheden die het
biedt. Via Youth in Action kunnen jongeren op een leuke en informele manier
leren en hun blik verruimen, waarbij ze zich meer bewust worden van de
wereld waarin ze leven en hoe ze hierin kunnen participeren als actieve
burgers. 

(JvL)


************************************
7. SOMETHING ABOUT GREECE
************************************


General Information

Greece is situated in Southeastern Europe, with an area of 131,957 sq.km.
and a population of 10,964,020.
Athens is the capital of Greece with a population of 3,192,606.
Local time is GMT +2 hours.
The Hellenic Republic is a Presidential Parliamentary Democracy.
President of the Hellenic Republic: Mr Karolos Papoulias.
Prime Minister: Mr  Constantinos Karamanlis
Parliament:  Three hundred elected members with elections held every four years
Greece is a member state of E.U. since 1981.
The currency is euro.
The Greek economy adopts the principles of free enterprise and is bound by
the regulations of international organisations such as ECOFIN and WTO, of
which it is a member.

Climate - Weather

Greece has a Mediterranean climate with plenty of sunshine, mild
temperatures and a limited amount of rainfall. Due to the country's
geographical position, its rugged relief and its distribution between
the mainland and the sea, there is great variation in Greece's climate.
In summer, the dry hot days are cooled by seasonal winds called the
meltemi, while mountainous regions have generally lower temperatures.
The winters are mild in lowland areas, with a minimum amount of snow and
ice, yet, mountains are usually snow-covered. Moreover, a common
phenomenon is the occurrence of different climactic conditions during
the same season (for instance, mild heat in coastal areas and cool
temperatures in mountainous regions).
    
Time

Greek time is G É?ɱ +2 hours
Public Holidays 2007
1 January: New Year's Day
6 January: Epiphany
19 February : Ash Monday
25 March: National Holiday
8 and 9 April : Easter
1 May : May Day
28 May : Whit Monday ( Holiday only for public sector)
15 August: Dormition (Assumption) of The Virgin
28 October: National Holiday
25 and 26 December: Christmas

History

The earliest traces of human habitation in Greece date from the
Palaeolithic period (120,000 - 10,000 B.C. approximately).
During the subsequent Neolithic period (7,000 - 3,000 B.C. approximately),
civilisation flourishes  in Greece.  A plethora of Neolithic settlements
and cemeteries have been discovered in Thessaly (Sesklo, Dimini),
Macedonia, the Peloponnese et al.
The beginning of the Bronze Age (3000 - 1100 B.C. approx.) is marked by the
appearance of the first urban centres in the Aegean (Poliochni on the
island of Limnos). Flourishing settlements are found on Crete, the Greek
mainland, the Cyclades and in the Northeastern Aegean, regions where
characteristic cultural patterns develop.  At the beginning of the 2nd
millennium B.C. organised palatial societies appear on Minoan Crete,
resulting in the development of the first scripts.  Using the palace of
Knossos as their centre, the Minoans create a communication network with
peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean, adopt elements of their cultures, and
in turn have a decisive influence on the cultures of the Greek mainland and
the Aegean islands.
On the Greek mainland, the Mycenaeans, taking advantage of the destructions
caused on Crete by the eruption of the volcano on Santorini (around 1500
B.C.),   step forward and become the leading force in the Aegean during the
last centuries of the 2nd millennium B.C. The Mycenaean citadels in
Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Thebes, Gla, Athens and Iolkós constitute the
centres of bureaucratically organised kingdoms. The extensive destruction
of the Mycenaean centres around 1200 B.C. led to the decline of the
Mycenaean civilisation and the migration of large parts of the population
to the coasts of Asia Minor and Cyprus (1st Greek colonisation).   
After approximately two centuries of economic and cultural inactivity,
known as the Dark Ages (1150 - 900 B.C.), the Geometric period follows (9th
- 8th centuries B.C.), the beginning of the Greek renaissance.  It is
marked by the formation of the Greek city-states, the creation of the Greek
alphabet and the composition of the Homeric epics (end of the 8th century
B.C.).  The subsequent Archaic Period (7th- 6th centuries B.C.) is an era
of major social and political changes.  The Greek city-states establish
colonies as far as Spain to the West, the Black Sea to the North, and North
Africa to the South (2nd Greek colonisation) and lay the foundation for the
peak of the classical period.  The hallmark of the classical period (5th -
4th centuries B.C.) is the cultural and political predominance of Athens;
so much so that the second half of the 5th century B.C. is called the
"Golden Age" of Pericles.  With the end of the Peloponnesian War, in 404
B.C., Athens loses its dominance. 
New forces emerge during the 4th century B.C.  With Philip II and his son,
Alexander, Macedonians start playing a leading role in Greece.  Alexander's
expedition to the East and the conquest of regions as far as the Indus
River radically change the situation in the then-known world.  With the
death of Alexander, the vast empire that he created is divided among his
generals, leading to the creation of the kingdoms that will prevail during
the Hellenistic times (3rd -1st centuries B.C.).  During this period, the
Greek cities remain more or less autonomous, but they have lost much of
their old power and prestige.  The complete and final conquest of Greece by
the Romans in 146 B.C. incorporates the country into the vast Roman Empire.
During Roman occupation (1st century B.C. - 3rd century A.D.), most of the
Roman emperors, who are admirers of the Greek culture, are friendly towards
the Greek cities, and especially Athens.  Through the travels of Apostle
Paul during the 1st century B.C., Christianity, the new religion that will
gradually dethrone the worship of the Dodecatheon (the Twelve Gods), is
spread all over Greece.
Nowadays visitors of the country can see the "fingerprints" of Greek
history from the Palaeolithic period to the Roman era at the hundreds of
archaeological sites, as well as in the archaeological museums and
collections  scattered all over the country (the Greek mainland and the
islands).
The decision of Constantine the Great to move the empire's capital from
Rome to Constantinople (324 A.D.) shifted the focus to the eastern part of
the empire.  This move marks the beginning of the Byzantine era during
which Greece is part of the Byzantine Empire.  After 1204, when
Constantinople is seized by Western crusaders, parts of Greece are given
away to Western leaders, while the Venetians occupy strategic positions in
the Aegean (islands or coastal cities), in order to control trade routes.
The reoccupation of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1262 marks the last
phase in the empire's existence.  The Ottomans gradually start seizing
parts of the empire from the 14th century A.D. and complete its destruction
with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453.  Crete was the last part of
Greece to be occupied by the Ottomans in 1669.  Approximately four
centuries of Ottoman occupation follow until the beginning of the Greek War
of Independence in 1821.
Numerous monuments from the Byzantine period and the Ottoman occupation
still subsist, such as Byzantine and Post-Byzantine churches and
monasteries, Ottoman buildings, enchanting Byzantine and Frankish castles,
various other monuments as well as traditional settlements , many of which
retain their Ottoman and, partly, Byzantine structure. 
The result of the Greek War of Independence was the formation of an
independent Greek kingdom in 1830, which, however, covered only a
restricted territory.  During the 19th and the beginning of the 20th
centuries, new areas with Greek populations are gradually integrated into
the Greek state.  Greece's territory reaches a maximum after the end of
World War I, in 1920, with the substantial contribution of prime minister
Eleftherios Venizelos.  The Greek state takes its contemporary form after
the end of World War II with the incorporation of the Dodecanese Islands.
In 1974, after a seven-year dictatorship, a referendum was held and the
system of government changed from a constitutional monarchy to a
Presidential Parliamentary Democracy; Greece has been a member of the
European Community/Union since 1981.

(DI)
-----------------------------------------------------------

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É¢É÷ɬɈɻÉøÉÀÐÉ-É÷ÉÀ.
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ɣɊɊ¿É¬Éø ÉøÉÀÉøɻɉɦýÉ'É?ɉɻɈ É Éˆ É¬É‰É ÉÕÉ'ÐÉ"É«É-É Éø Éø¼Þ
É¿ÉøÉ-ɫɊɈÉ"ÞÉ ÉˆÉÀɉ É-Ɉ ¼É¦ÉÕɈɬɦɈÉ"ÞÉ ÉˆÉÀɉ É¢É‰É ÉÕɻɦÉøÉ-ðÉø,
ɈÉÀÒ Éø¼Þ É-ÉÕ 1981 Éø¼ÉÕÉ-ɈɊɈð É ¤ÉŠÉÕV É-ɉV É£É"ɦÉ÷¼ÉøšÉ»ÐV
É®ÉÕÉ«ÉÀÞÉ-ɉÉ-ÉøV / ‘ÉÀÉ÷É-ɉV.

(DI)

************************************
8. LOESJE: SOME THINGS TO THINK ABOUT
************************************

Have you heard about Loesje? Loesje is an international free speech
organisation started in Arnhem (the Netherlands) in 1983. Loesje went
international in 1989. Its charter is to spread creativity, positive
criticism, ideas, philosophical ponderings and thoughts on current events
by way of short slogans on posters, signed by a fictional character, Loesje
(a Dutch female name).Loesje is currently active in over 30 countries to
some extent including Argentina, Armenia, Bosnia, Belgium, Catalonia,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy,
Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United
States of America. At the moment Loesje's headquarters are located in
Berlin (since September 2005) and from there Loesje implements and
coordinates many diverse international projects around the world. Because I
like the idea and the statements of Loesje very much, I will sometimes
write some statements down in the newsletter. The sentences are short and
simple, but in my opinion very catchy. I hope you will like it as much as I
do! 

(JvL)


INTEGRATION: HOW COME TARZAN GOT ACCEPTED IN THE JUNGLE?

POLLUTION: JESUS, SOON WE CAN ALL WALK ON WATER

INDIVIDUALISING GLOBAL WORLD
AND THE LABEL SAID >> MADE BY LEE HO FUNG <<

IF THE GAP WIDENS, THE BRIGDE HAS TO GET LONGER

NATURAL RESOURCES:  WHAT IF COFFEE ENDS?

THE WORLD IS TOO ROUND TO SIT SILENTLY IN THE CORNER

WHEN THEY MAKE YOU RESPONSIBLE FOR WHERE YOU ARE BORN, YOU ARE CALLED A REFUGEE

MY LIFE IS MY DAILY ART

WHEN DEMOCRACY ISN'T WORKING, PEOPLE ARE

BANANAS TRAVEL EVEN MORE THAN I DO

DON'T FORGET TO STAND STILL EVERY NOW AND THEN TO ADMIRE THE VIEW

WORLD AIDS DAY
THE ONLY THING UNHEALABLE SHOULD BE LOVE

THE BIGGER THE EU, THE MORE SPACE FOR IMMIGRANTS

INTEGRATION SIMPLY GOES EASIER, WHEN YOU KNOW YOU ARE WELCOME

MOTHERS, LET YOUR CHILDREN PLAY WITH WHAT THEY WANT, OR THEY MIGHT BECOME
POLITICIANS

I WOKE UP THIS MORNING, AND FOUND THE WORLD ON MY DOORSTEP


************************************
9. EXCHANGE PROGRAMME IN TURKEY
************************************
There will be an youth exchange programme in Kžrs¸ehir in Turkey between
9-16 December 2007.
Host organisation: Ahi Kulubu
Participants needed: 4
It is important that the participants have some skills of playing
instruments, dancing etc. Each country will show a relaxing activity of
their country and teach others.
Participants will pay the 30% percent of the travel costs.

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