[Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index][Thread Index]
Alcuni documenti importanti relativi alle questioni di politica nucleare : 1945-1990
- Subject: Alcuni documenti importanti relativi alle questioni di politica nucleare : 1945-1990
- From: rossana <rossana at comodinoposta.org>
- Date: Mon, 05 Oct 2009 20:23:06 +0200
- User-agent: Thunderbird 188.8.131.52 (Windows/20090812)
"Se nel cielo divampasse simultaneamente la luce di mille soli, sarebbe
come lo splendore dell'Onnipotente."
Special Collection: Some Key Documents on Nuclear Policy Issues, 1945-1990
Milioni di pagine di documenti declassificati e classificati sulla
politica nucleare degli Stati Uniti durante e dopo la guerra fredda.
Alcuni documenti non saranno mai messi a disposizione del pubblico
perché rivelerebbero la tecnologia delle armi nucleari, tuttavia è stato
declassificato del materiale importante e rivelatore di questioni di
politica nucleare. Molti documenti parlano di operazioni di routine,
come la produzione di armi nucleari e le sue implementazioni, altri sono
più importanti perché illuminano eventi e sviluppi, le tendenze di
pensiero. I seguenti documenti, alcuni pubblicati per la prima volta,
affrontano una serie di problemi fondamentali come il primo uso
dell'arma nucleare e gli effetti delle armi nucleari, i vincoli circa il
loro uso e i possibili esiti di una guerra nucleare.
Documenti declassificati con interviste orali (nel 1995) di vari capi
militari dell'ex Unione Sovietica. Da questi documenti risulta che i
russi non erano dei mostri che cercavano un pretesto per attaccare gli
Stati Uniti, ma erano profondamente consapevoli degli effetti devastanti
di una guerra nucleare.
Durante una esercitazione nel 1972 i leader del Cremlino hanno ascoltato
un briefing sui risultati di una ipotetica guerra con gli Stati Uniti.Un
attacco americano avrebbe ucciso 80 milioni di cittadini sovietici e
distrutto l'85 per cento della capacità industriale del paese. Qual'è -
stato - il ruolo dell'industria bellica, quale la sua influenza?
Del complesso militare-industriale ovviamente, la produzione
industriale, il sistema d'arma, la tecnologia.
Il primo: 1947 October : U.S.A., ATLANTIC OCEAN - A retired navy pilot
Lieutenant-Commander George Earl IV has claimed that he dumped
radioactive Waste off the Atlantic seaboard on three flights in 1947.
Lt-Commander Earl said he disclosed the radioactive dumping because of
the U.S. Government's apparent lack of concern over the possibility of
the cannisters leaking. ("The West Australian" - 3rd January 1981)
L'ultimo: 2009, 3 February: British and French submarines loaded with
nuclear weapons collided in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean
15 February: After a steam generator ruptured in New York’s Indian Point
II power plant, a small amount of radioactive steam was leaked, but not
enough to threaten the safety of the public.
12 August: The Kursk, Russia’s Northern Fleet nuclear submarine, sank
into 354 feet of water while completing exercises in the Barents Sea,
with 118 sailors aboard, after a torpedo exploded on board. Although 23
members were able to gather in a dry compartment with hopes of being
rescued, Norwegian divers declared everyone aboard dead due to the
flooding of the submarine that they found.
21 February: The Greenville, a 360-foot U.S. Navy submarine based at
Pearl Harbor, sinks a Japanese trawler after colliding with it, killing
nine civilians aboard the fishing boat.
6 March: A foot long cavity was discovered in the reactor vessel head at
Ohio’s Davis-Besse nuclear plant. Borated water had decomposed the metal
to a 3/16 inch stainless steel liner which held back over 80,000 gallons
of highly pressurized radioactive water.
23 October: An unidentified nuclear submarine caught fire while at
Sevmorput shipyard in Russia. Reports did not disclose what submarine it
was, if there were any casualties, and if any radiation leaked out.
5 March: A Sierra I class submarine from Russia caught on fire while it
was in a dry dock at Roslyakovo shipyard. The fire was put out, and no
casualties or radiation discharge were reported, although the rubber
coating was damaged. The cause was unknown.
23 March: Vladimir Kuroyedov declares Russia’s nuclear battleship, the
“Peter the Great” as a risk of exploding at any time, and demands it be
rushed back to port after taking a tour. Most think this is an exaggeration.
25 October: USS Hartford (US sub) ran aground north of Sardinia, Italy
in the Mediterranean Sea. The US tried to hide the accident, but when
relatives of the crew found out that the submarine trip was cut short by
a month, they began to speak to the media. It hit the rocky bottom so
hard that rudders, sonar and other electronic equipment were severely
damaged. Italy was furious about the cover up.
17 February: During nuclear war exercises including battle ships, bomber
aircrafts, and six nuclear ballistic missile and general purpose
submarines in Russia with President Vladimir Putin onboard one of the
ballistic missile submarines, a ballistic nuclear missile failed to fire
from the Novomoskovsk. It was a great embarrassment to Northern Fleet
commanders, as the enemy would not have gotten any reciprocation had it
attacked or been an actual war.
9 August: In Mihama, Japan, non-radioactive steam leaked from a nuclear
power plant, killing four workers and severely burning seven others. It
was considered Japan’s worst nuclear accident.
7 January: The USS San Francisco hit an uncharted sea mountain
underwater, causing 23 injuries and 1 death, due to human collisions
with mechanisms inside the submarine. According to the US Navy, there
were no environmental effects and there was no damage to the submarine’s
1 August: The third compartment of a submarine located at Zvyozdochka,
in Russia, that was stripped of its nuclear fuel and reactors, and was
being dismantled for scrap metal caught on fire, leaving two workers,
ages 18 and 22, dead. The welding torch ignited fuel vapor that had
built up in one compartment of the submarine.
26 July: One of the nuclear submarines from Russia’s Northern Fleet
suffered a leak in the first reactor circuit. Crew members who got rid
of the leakage were sent to the hospital, as some Russian Navy
representatives stated that the water was radioactive and others stated
it was not.
6 September: Two crew members were killed and one was injured during a
fire that broke out on a Victor III class submarine K-414 belonging to
the Russian Northern Fleet during a routine patrol. According to
reports, the K-414 was overdue for maintenance checks. There was no
threat of a radiation leak or nuclear pollution.
12 September: At the Kjeller reactor (known as the Jeep II) in Norway,
there was a leak in a pump used with the recombination circuit. The
Norwegian Institute for Energy Technology said radiation seeped out for
about 15 minutes. This was not the first time that there was an accident
at the Kjeller reactor; there were 3 serious accidents from 2001 to 2006.
2November: A fire took place on the Russian K-317 nuclear submarine
during repairs at Severodvinsk.
26 July: A submarine undergoing repairs to its high air pressure system
endured excessive air pressure, resulting in an explosion at the
Northern Russian naval repair yard in Severodivnsk. The explosion caused
no damage, no injuries or deaths, and no radiation escaped.
21 March: While using a back up ventilation system on a Royal Navy
nuclear attack submarine, the HMS Tireless, an explosion occurred,
killing two sailors and injuring one. The nuclear reactor was not
affected, and there was only minimal damage to the submarine. The reason
for the sailors using the back up system was unknown and had to undergo
2 September: The German government confirmed that the Asse II facility,
a nuclear waste storage that held 126,000 barrels of waste, has a leak,
and has been leaking for over twenty years. After this confirmation,
Germany was forced to think about another place for storing all the waste.
8 November: Twenty sailors were killed and twenty-one injured on a
Russian Akula Class attack submarine during sea trials held in the Sea
of Japan. These victims suffocated from freezing and toxic liquid Freon
gas from a faulty fire suppression system. The siren to alert the crew
that there was danger may have been delayed, according to authorities.
No radiation accidents were reported.
3 February: British and French submarines loaded with nuclear weapons
collided in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Both submarines were
powered by nuclear reactors. According to reports, the French submarine
was able to return to its port under its own power; the British
submarine was towed back to port. The British submarine suffered
significant damage to the propeller area in the rear, and the French
craft was heavily damaged at the front.